• A Rock Between Hard Places

    Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh

    What drives neighbouring states to intervene in the Afghan conflict? This book challenges mainstream analyses which place Afghanistan at the centre – the so-called ‘heart’ – of a large pan- Asian region whose fate is predicated on Afghan stability. Instead Harpviken and Tadjbakhsh situ­ate Afghanistan on the margins of three regional security complexes – those of South Asia, Central Asia, and the Persian Gulf – each characterised by deep security rivalries, which, in turn, informs their engagement in Afghanistan. Within Central Asia, security cooperation is hampered by com­petition for regional supremacy and great power support, a dynamic reflected in these states’ half-hearted role in Afghanistan. In the Persian Gulf, Iran and Saudi Arabia fight for economic and political influence, mirrored in their Afghan en­gagements; while long-standing Indo-Pakistani ri­valries are perennially played out in Afghanistan. Based on a careful reading of the recent political and economic history of the region, and of Great Power rivalry beyond it, the authors explain why efforts to build a comprehensive Afghanistan-cen­tric regional security order have failed, and what might be done to re-set inter-state relations.

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  • Blood Year

    Kilcullen, David

    Blood Year is an unsparingly honest, self-critical analysis of the collapse of western counterterrorism strategy, by one of its original architects. As a counterterrorism officer, then Chief Strategist in the US State Department’s Bureau of Counterterrorism, David Kilcullen was one of the key designers of British and US counterterrorism policy. His insights helped to shape the strategy, known as “Disaggregation”, which crippled Al Qaeda and prevented a follow up to the 9/11 attacks, and he found himself in harm’s way in Southeast Asia, Libya, Somalia, Pakistan, Iraq and Afghanistan. So Kilcullen’s frank assessment—that the strategy he helped design has failed, has not made us safer, and has contributed to new threats, including ISIS—makes this short book mandatory reading for anyone interested in how terrorism is confronted. The most startling part of Kilcullen’s analysis is when he suggests there may be far worse adversaries than ISIS incubating in various parts of the world, preparing for the next stage of their unending struggle. His prescription for change, for a thorough reimagining of the threat, and for an open public debate on how to deal with it, will be a massive challenge. But if western democracies are to avoid more years of blood, it will be essential.

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  • Bosnia’s Paralysed Peace

    Bennett, Christopher

    ‘An excellent text — it is well structured, reads smoothly and displays a strong, confident grasp of the subject material — which is what one would expect from Christopher Bennett writing about Bosnia.’ — Dr Marko Hoare, Kingston University and author of The History of Bosnia

    The scale of international investment in peace-building in Bosnia has been unprecedented. A plethora of international institutions, including the EU, the IMF, the OHR, the OSCE, the World Bank and the United Nations, as well as many development agencies, set about piecing the country together, a process cushioned by generous flows of aid. However, despite the massive international commitment in time, resources and effort, a decade and a half later Bosnia’s peace is at best paralysed. War remains a risk because of the myriad of unresolved issues, zero-sum politics and incompatible positions of rival ethno-national leaders.

    In the face of paralysis, international officials repeat the mantra that there is no alternative to Bosnia’s European path and urge the country’s leaders to see sense, to temper their rhetoric and to carry out internationally approved reforms. To no avail.

    Christopher Bennett argues that the failure of peace-building is the failure of the ‘liberal peace model’. Policy-makers have focused on ‘what should be’ in terms of trying to reproduce Western
    liberal democracy, rather than ‘what is’ in Bosnia, where ethno-national security concerns remain
    critically important to most people.

    Bennett’s book offers a comprehensive analysis of stalled peace process. He concludes by proposing a paradigm shift in strategy aimed at ensuring a self-sustaining ethno-national security for all of its peoples.

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  • Colonial Violence

    Dierk Walter

    Translated by Peter Lewis

    Western interventions today have much in common with the countless violent conflicts that have occurred on Europe’s periphery since the conquest of the Americas. Like their predecessors, modern imperial wars are shaped by geography and terrain and by pronounced asymmetries of military organisation, resources, modes of warfare and cultures of violence. Today’s imperial wars are essentially civil wars, in which Western powers are only one player among many. As ever, the Western military machine is incapable of resolving political strife through force, or of engaging opponents with no reason to offer conventional combat, who instead rely on guerrilla warfare and terrorism. And, as they always have, local populations pay the price for these shortcomings.

    Colonial Violence offers, for the first time, a coherent explanation of the logic of violent hostilities within the context of European expansion. Walter’s analysis reveals parallels between different empires and continuities spanning historical epochs. He concludes that recent Western military interventions, from Afghanistan to Mali, are not new wars, but stand in the 500-year-old tradition of transcultural violent conflict.

    Author

    Dierk Walter is a lecturer in Modern History at the Universities of Bern and Hamburg. His research focuses on the history of European expansion and Western military history since the eighteenth century. He has previously published a study on nineteenth-century Prussian military reform, and co-edited a number of volumes on military history and the Cold War.

    **(The translation of this work was funded by Geisteswissenschaften International — Translation Funding for Work in the Humanities and Social Sciences from Germany, a joint initiative of the Fitz Thyssen Foundation, the German Federal Foreign Office, the collecting society VG WORT and the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels (German Publishers & Booksellers Association)).

    Reviews

    It is excellent that Dierk Walter’s survey of colonial conflict has been translated into English. This is military history as it should be written: conceptually broad, chronologically ambitious.

    ‘An important book that offers a clear point of view on the violence inherent to imperialism, whether Western or not. Worth considering alongside high rates of violence in recent and current non-Western warfare.’ — Jeremy Black, Professor of History, University of Exeter

    ‘It is excellent that Dierk Walter’s survey of colonial conflict has been translated into English. This is military history as it should be written: conceptually broad, chronologically ambitious, and — above all — transnational. His case for continuity — bridging colonial conquest, decolonisation, and recent interventions — will provoke, as it should, but that is the hallmark of an important book.’ — Sir Hew Strachan, Chichele Professor of the History of War, Oxford University

    ‘Broad canvas syntheses that put violence at the heart of the West’s engagement with the wider world have been rare — understanding and acceptance of the significance and consequences of its violence rarer still. Walter brings enormous comparative and summary power to its study, resulting in a highly readable and necessary work. Colonial Violence should stand as an elegant corrective, particularly in its emphasis on the continuity of violence through to the present day.’ — Ashley Jackson, Professor of Imperial and Military History, King’s College London; author of The British Empire: A Very Short Introduction

    Colonial Violence offers a comprehensive, scholarly interpretation and synthesis of the pattern of military violence associated with imperialism since around 1600. Based on a wide and deep familiarity with imperial military campaigns and asymmetric conflict, its conclusions regarding the weakness of the imperial powers relative to their indigenous foes, the continuities in imperial campaigns over time and place, and the root cause of excessive violence in the imperial situation rather than in ideology, will surprise and challenge many readers. Well written and clearly organized, this study will doubtless become a standard account of imperial military violence.’ — Isabel Virginia Hull, John Stambaugh Professor of History, Cornell University

    ‘Walter, with forensic skill, comprehensively analyses the causes, courses, and consequences of colonial wars and violence. This startlingly good study should be read and thought over by all with an interest in Europe’s global imperial military reach over the past five hundred years.’ — David Killingray, Emeritus Professor, Goldsmiths London

    Hardback
    November 2017 / 9781849048071 / 352pp

     

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  • Europe’s Balkan Muslims

    Nathalie Clayer and Xavier Bougarel

    Clayer and Bougarel’s prodigiously researched Europe’s Balkan Muslims is a political and institutional history of the Muslims of south-east Europe since the nineteenth century, focusing on empires, states, political parties, and religious institutions.

    Translated by Andrew Kirby

    CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title 2017

    There are roughly eight million Muslims in south-east Europe, among them Albanians, Bosniaks, Turks and Roma — descendants of converts or settlers in the Ottoman period. This new history of the social, political and religious transformations that this population experienced in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries — a period marked by the collapse of the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires and by the creation of the modern Balkan states — will shed new light on the European Muslim experience.

    South-east Europe’s Muslims have experienced a slow and complex crystallisation of their respective national identities, which accelerated after 1945 as a result of the authoritarian modernisation of communist regimes and, in the late twentieth century, ended in nationalist mobilisations that precipitated the independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo during the break-up of Yugoslavia.

    At a religious level, these populations have remained connected to the institutions established by the Ottoman Empire, as well as to various educational, intellectual and Sufi (mystic) networks. With the fall of communism, new transnational networks appeared, especially neo-Salafist and neo- Sufi ones, although Europe’s Balkan Muslims have not escaped the wider processes of secularisation.

    Authors

    A specialist on Albanian Islam, Nathalie Clayer is a Senior Researcher at the Centre for Turkish, Ottoman, Balkan and Central Asian Studies at EHESS in Paris. She is also a historian of religion and nationalism in the Ottoman and post-Ottoman eras.

    Xavier Bougarel is a researcher at the Centre for Turkish, Ottoman, Balkan and Central Asian Studies at EHESS in Paris. He also specialises in Islam in south-east Europe and the wars in the former Yugoslavia

    Reviews

    ‘Written by two of the most distinguished French scholars of Southeastern Europe and Islam, and appearing here in an outstanding translation from French, this is the most comprehensive existing survey of the Balkan Muslims in the last two centuries. Its interpretative strength lies in the rare combination between sophisticated historiographical analysis and clarity of exposition.’ — Maria Todorova, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    ‘This welcome translation of this collaborative work … helps introduce readers to an important clarification of European Islam that has evolved over centuries … [An] excellent study…’ — Dr. Isa Blumi, Senior Lecturer and Associate Professor of Turkish Studies, Stockholm University, CHOICE

    Hardback
    April 2017  / 9781849046596 / 288pp

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  • Fortress Europe

    Carr, Matthew

    ‘Matthew Carr travels to remote borderlands of Poland, Spain, Greece, and Malta; Schengen-bordering countries like Turkey and Morocco that collaborate in enforcement; and the heart of western Europe and Britain to meet immigrants stuck in remote detention centers or “living rough” on city streets for years, as well as temporary workers and sex slaves abused by their handlers and abandoned by governments. But Carr also depicts ordinary Europeans who have gone to great lengths to help these stranded travelers. This disturbing but hopeful book humanizes the face of 21st-century immigration.’—Publishers Weekly

    ‘Military patrols using live ammunition against unarmed men, women and children scaling barbed wire fences, captains dumping their human cargo in the sea after being detected by the navy: These are scenes not from North Korea or divided Berlin, but from the modern-day European Union. . . Employing a personable, readable style, the author shares vignettes from his extensive travels along Europe’s outer reaches, from the African exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla to the Greek archipelago to the Slovakian-Ukrainian border. . . An unflinching look inside.’—Kirkus Reviews

    ‘Carr argues that the combination of internal liberalisation and external hardening has increased criminal, abusive, and often deadly human trafficking, while only modestly reducing immigration. The unique virtue of the book lies in Carr’s reporting from the brutal frontiers of the new Europe: Ukrainian border towns where illegal trafficking thrives, Spanish territories in Morocco where would-be immigrants are shot dead or left to die in the Sahara after attempting to scale razor-wire fences, Italian and Maltese islands where overfilled boatloads of Africans drown by the hundreds. ’ —Foreign Affairs

    For nearly thirty years the Berlin Wall symbolised a divided Europe. In the euphoric aftermath of the Cold War, the advent of a new ‘borderless’ world was hailed, one in which such barriers would become obsolete. Today these utopian predictions have yet to be realised. European governments have enacted the most sustained and far-reaching border enforcement program in history in an attempt to repel migrants seeking work or asylum. Detention and deportation, physical and bureaucratic barriers, naval patrols and satellite technologies: all these form part of the militarised response to immigration adopted by European governments, the human cost of which is often overlooked. These efforts have generated a tragic confrontation between some of the richest countries in the world and a stateless population from the poorest – a clash that occurs within Europe’s territorial frontiers and also far beyond them. Fortress Europe investigates that confrontation on Europe’s ‘hard borders.’ In a series of searing dispatches, Carr speaks to border officers and police, officials, migrants, asylum-seekers, and activists. The result is a unique and groundbreaking critique of Europe’s exclusionary borders, and an essential guide to the wider drama of migration that will dominate politics for years ahead.

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  • From Deep State to Islamic State

    Filiu

    In his disturbing and timely book Jean-Pierre Filiu lays bare the strategies and tactics employed by the Middle Eastern autocracies, above all those of Syria, Egypt, Yemen and Algeria, that set out to crush the democratic uprisings of the ‘Arab Revolution’.

    In pursuit of these goals they turned to the intelligence agencies and internal security arms of the ‘deep state’, the armed forces and to street gangs such as the Shabiha to enforce their will. Alongside physical intimidation, imprisonment and murder, Arab counter-revolutionaries discredited and split their opponents by boosting Salafi–Jihadi groups such as Islamic State. They also released from prison hardline Islamists and secretly armed and funded them.

    The full potential of the Arab counter-revolution surprised most observers, who thought they had seen it all from the Arab despots: their perversity, their brutality, their voracity. But the wider world underestimated their ferocious readiness to literally burn down their countries in order to cling to absolute power. Bashar al-Assad clambered to the top of this murderous class of tyrants, driving nearly half of the Syrian population in to exile and executing tens of thousands of his opponents. He has set a grisly precedent, one that other Arab autocrats are sure to follow in their pursuit of absolute power.

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  • Go back to where you came from

    Sasha Polakow-Suransky

    What if the new far right poses a graver threat to liberal democracy than jihadists or mass migration?

    From Europe to the United States and beyond, opportunistic politicians have exploited economic crisis, terrorist attacks and an influx of refugees to bring hateful and reactionary views from the margins of political discourse into the corridors of power. This climate has already helped propel Donald Trump to the White House, pushed Britain out of the European Union, and put Marine Le Pen within striking distance of the French presidency.

    Sasha Polakow-Suransky’s on-the-ground reportage and interviews with the rising stars of the new right tell the story of how we got here, tracing the global rise of anti-immigration politics and the ruthlessly effective rebranding of Europe’s new far right as defenders of Western liberal values.

    Go Back to Where You Came From is an indispensable account of why xenophobia went mainstream in countries known historically as defenders of human rights and models of tolerance.

    Author

    Sasha Polakow-Suransky

    Sasha Polakow-Suransky is an Open Society Foundations fellow. He was an op-ed editor at the New York Times and a senior editor at Foreign Affairs and holds a doctorate in modern history from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. His writing has appeared in the GuardianForeign PolicyNewsweek, the New Republic and the​ Boston Globe.

    Reviews

    ‘Polakow-Suransky … has reported from across the globe for this book, providing dispatches from refu­gee camps and interviewing politicians, activists and immigrants on all sides of this debate. He captures social and political transformations in simple, memorable lines.’ — Washington Post

    ‘[Polakow-Suransky] has covered a good amount of territory, interviewed some of the continent’s characters, and given a fairish tour of recent events.’ Evening Standard

    Go Back to Where you Came From analyses the problem well … Sasha Polakow-Suransky … has painstakingly documented this phenomenon.’ — The Irish Times

    ‘Polakow-Suransky … has produced something badly needed in the English language: a comprehensive and impartial explanatory survey of the people and ideas behind the rise of the politics of intolerance, not just in Europe but across much of the Western world … this book’s strength is its window into Europe’s voices, past and present, and the links the author finds between them.’ — The Globe and Mail

    ‘Aided by conflict and a deflationary crisis not seen since the 1930s, the West has been taken over by a moral panic over immigrants that threatens to found a new fascism. Sasha Polakow-Suransky’s new book is a fine antidote to this motivated menace.’ — Yanis Varoufakis, author of And The Weak Suffer What They Must? Europe, Austerity and the Threat to Global Stability

    ‘An important, deeply reported investigation into the rise of the extreme right around the globe and a warning of the implications for western democracies. A must read for all concerned citizens.’ — Paul Mason, author of PostCapitalism

    ‘The populist rebellion sweeping the West is driven by a toxic combination of immigration, inequality, and identity. Sasha Polakow-Suransky’s superb new book unpacks the story, taking readers through a changing Europe bursting with promise yet racked by conflict. With its deep reportage, gripping prose, and powerful message, it is a must read for anyone trying to understand global politics today — and tomorrow.’ — Gideon Rose, Editor of Foreign Affairs

    ‘Sasha Polakow-Suransky confronts deep tensions between race, class, and borders that so many liberals would prefer to ignore, with detailed examples from Europe, the United States, and South Africa. For those of us deeply worried about the future of liberal democracy, Go Back to Where You Came From is an important and enlightening book.’ — Anne-Marie Slaughter, President and CEO of New America

    ‘A well-researched and authoritatively written analysis that resists easy answers and generalizations regarding the complex problems of immigration. … Polakow-Suransky plainly views the collapse of liberal democracy with alarm. Refreshingly, however, he generally steers clear of polemics and demonization, giving those on what he terms the “new far right” their voice and showing how widespread resistance to immigration in general, and Muslim immigration in particular, has moved from the fringes to the mainstream. …He shows how working-class liberalism has suffered a split between ideologues more concerned with identity politics and social issues and voters who pine for the way things used to be and feel like their parties have abandoned their interests in favor of minority rights and religious tolerance. … Not an apologia for resistance to immigration but rather a nuanced, important analysis of an issue fraught with complications.’ — Kirkus, starred review

    Hardback / October 2017 / 9781849049092 / 376pp

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  • Hidden Power

    Cockayne, James

    ‘In this landmark study, James Cockayne provides a rich and thoroughly researched history of the interaction between mafias and the state, while providing a framework for considering the strategic calculations of all criminal organisations.’ — Sir Lawrence Freedman, Emeritus Professor of War Studies, King’s College London

    ‘Remarkable, a landmark in organised crime research. Cockayne, uniquely both an analyst and practitioner, is the first person to bridge the divide between the study of what we have traditionally called “the mafia” and a new generation of organised crime in the developing world. This will be the standard reference for all those debating the policy options for illicit trafficking and the role of criminal organisations in the age of globalisation.’
    — Mark Shaw, Director, Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

    ‘This compelling narrative takes us on a geographic tour that includes Sicily, New York, Cuba and conflicts in Mexico and the Sahel. Even more impressive is the analytical tour Cockayne provides—a tour de force illuminating a blind spot in our understanding of global instability.’ — John G. Ruggie, Berthold Beitz Professor in Human Rights and International Affairs, Harvard University

    What should we make of the outsized role organ¬ised crime plays in conflict and crisis, from drug wars in Mexico to human smuggling in North Africa, from the struggle in Crimea to scandals in Kabul? How can we deal with the convergence of poli¬tics and crime in so-called ‘mafia states’ such as Guin¬ea-Bissau, North Korea or, as some argue, Russia? Drawing on unpublished government documents and mafia memoirs, James Cockayne discovers the strategic logic of organised crime, hidden in a cen¬tury of forgotten political–criminal collaboration in New York, Sicily and the Caribbean. He reveals states and mafias competing — and collaborating — in a competition for governmental power. He discovers mafias influencing elections, changing constitutions, organising domestic insurgencies and transnational terrorism, negotiating peace deals, and forming gov¬ernmental joint ventures with ruling groups. And he sees mafias working with the US government to spy on American citizens, catch Nazis, try to assassinate Fidel Castro, invade and govern Sicily, and playing unappreciated roles in the Bay of Pigs fiasco and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
    ‘In this landmark study, James Cockayne provides a rich and thoroughly researched history of the interaction between mafias and the state, while providing a framework for considering the strategic calculations of all criminal organisations.’ — Sir Lawrence Freedman, Emeritus Professor of War Studies, King’s College London

    ‘Remarkable, a landmark in organised crime research. Cockayne, uniquely both an analyst and practitioner, is the first person to bridge the divide between the study of what we have traditionally called “the mafia” and a new generation of organised crime in the developing world. This will be the standard reference for all those debating the policy options for illicit trafficking and the role of criminal organisations in the age of globalisation.’
    — Mark Shaw, Director, Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

    ‘This compelling narrative takes us on a geographic tour that includes Sicily, New York, Cuba and conflicts in Mexico and the Sahel. Even more impressive is the analytical tour Cockayne provides—a tour de force illuminating a blind spot in our understanding of global instability.’ — John G. Ruggie, Berthold Beitz Professor in Human Rights and International Affairs, Harvard University

    What should we make of the outsized role organ¬ised crime plays in conflict and crisis, from drug wars in Mexico to human smuggling in North Africa, from the struggle in Crimea to scandals in Kabul? How can we deal with the convergence of poli¬tics and crime in so-called ‘mafia states’ such as Guin¬ea-Bissau, North Korea or, as some argue, Russia? Drawing on unpublished government documents and mafia memoirs, James Cockayne discovers the strategic logic of organised crime, hidden in a cen¬tury of forgotten political–criminal collaboration in New York, Sicily and the Caribbean. He reveals states and mafias competing — and collaborating — in a competition for governmental power. He discovers mafias influencing elections, changing constitutions, organising domestic insurgencies and transnational terrorism, negotiating peace deals, and forming gov¬ernmental joint ventures with ruling groups. And he sees mafias working with the US government to spy on American citizens, catch Nazis, try to assassinate Fidel Castro, invade and govern Sicily, and playing unappreciated roles in the Bay of Pigs fiasco and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

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  • How Long Will Israel Survive?

    Gregg Carlstrom

    The greatest threat to Israel may come from within, not without, as Carlstrom explains in his deft account of a nation’s identity crisis. Israel is surrounded by an array of ever-changing threats. But what if its most serious challenge comes from within? There was once a national consensus in Israeli society: despite a left-right political split, its people were broadly secular and liberal. Over the past decade, the country has fractured into tribes with little shared understanding of what it means to be a Zionist—let alone an Israeli—and contesting the very notion of a ‘Jewish and democratic’ state. While this shift has profound implications for Israel’s relationship with the broadly liberal Jewish diaspora, the greatest consequences will be felt at home. Israel’s tribes increasingly lead separate lives; even the army, once a great melting-pot, is now a political and cultural battleground. Tamir Pardo, former head of Mossad, has warned of the risk of civil war. Gregg Carlstrom maps this conflict, from cosmopolitan Tel Aviv to the hilltops of the West Bank, and asks a pressing question: will the Middle East’s strongest power survive its own internal contradictions?

    Author

    Gregg Carlstrom is a correspondent for The Times and The Economist, based in Tel Aviv. He contributes to a number of other publications, including The AtlanticForeign PolicyNew York magazine and others. He was previously based in Cairo, and before that as a Doha-based reporter for Al Jazeera English, covering the region from Tunisia to Iraq. He was born in New York and graduated from Northwestern University.

    Reviews

    ‘Useful primer for those seeking to understand Israeli politics and society. [Carlstrom’s] “threat from within” is the rise of right-wing and ultra-religious trends that put a strain on the ties that bind Israel.’ — David Aaronovitch, The Times

    ‘Carlstrom’s engrossing book doesn’t trade in dire warnings but offers a sobering look at contemporary Israel and its future.’ — Publishers Weekly

    ‘Carlstrom considers a near-term future in which Israel is destroyed — not by external enemies but instead torn apart by civil war. … A provocative, highly readable view of a nation that seems headed for more trouble, this time from within.’ — Kirkus Reviews

    ‘Readable and refreshingly straightforward … [Carlstrom] gives the reader a lot of facts to ponder.’ — The Jordan Times

    ‘How Long Will Israel Survive is an X-ray examination of a critically ill Western democracy. Gregg Carlstrom clearly shows that the blood vessels of Israel’s democracy are narrowing due to heavy social tensions and the cost of occupying the Palestinians. This book is a rare look into the same processes that in the twentieth century created Apartheid in South Africa and central Europe’s authoritarian regimes.’ — Menachem Klein, senior lecturer at Bar-Ilan University, Israel; author of Lives in Common: Arabs and Jews in Jerusalem, Jaffa and Hebron

    ‘By turning the lens on Israel and shedding light on the impulses that are tearing the country apart, Gregg Carlstrom sheds new light on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. How Long Will Israel Survive lays bare a number of myths about Zionism, the occupation, and settlements. This nuanced, thoughtful, and deeply researched book is a must-read for anyone who wants to understand Israel and its broader conflicts.’ — Mya Guarnieri Jaradat, author of The Unchosen: The Lives of Israel’s New Others

    ‘A damning indictment of modern day Israel that rightly condemns its descent into permanent occupation over the Palestinian people. What this means for the Jewish people, in Israel and the Diaspora, as well as the Palestinians, should be compulsory reading for anybody who still harbours any illusions about the real agenda of Israel.’ — Antony Loewenstein, independent journalist and author of My Israel Question and Disaster Capitalism: Making A Killing Out Of Catastrophe

    ‘Well written, topical and hard hitting, this accessible, passionate and challenging book intersperses the personal and professional experiences of the author with the history and politics of Israeli society. Carlstrom has a strong opinion on what has gone wrong and what needs to be done. He deserves a wide audience for this work.’ — Rory Miller, Professor of Government at Georgetown University, Qatar

    ‘Gregg Carlstrom gives us a closely reported picture of Israel as it is today: more in danger from internal threats to its democracy and its identity than from any outside enemy. This book asks all the important questions about Israel’s future.’ — Gershom Gorenberg, senior correspondent for The American Prospect and author of The Unmaking of IsraelThe Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977; and The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount

    Hardback
    August 2017 / 9781849048040 / 256pp

     

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  • Humanitarian Economics

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    The booming global humanitarian market is worth billions of dollars a year, yet the demand for, and provision of, humanitarian assistance for those affected by wars and disasters rarely if ever converges. In parallel, ‘humanitarian economics’ has emerged as a new field of study and practice, one that encompasses the economics and political economy of war, disaster, terrorism and humanitarianism.

    Carbonnier’s book is the first to present humanitarian economics to a wider readership, he seeks to define its parameters, explain its utility and convince us why it matters. Among the issues he discusses are: how are emotions and altruism incorporated within a rational-choice framework? How do the economics of war and terrorism inform humanitarians’ negotiations with combatants, and shed light on the role of aid in conflict? What do catastrophe bonds and risk-linked securities mean for disaster response? How does the impact of the Syrian crisis on Lebanon illustrate the challenges of assessing needs in an urban, middle-income country and of opting for cash assistance rather than material aid?

    As more actors enter the humanitarian marketplace, including private firms, Carbonnier’s revealing portrayal is especially timely, as is his critique of the transformative power of crises.

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  • Islamist Terrorism in Europe

    Nesser, Petter

    The lethal attacks in Paris of January and November 2015 demonstrated the threat posed by militant Islamist extremism in Europe. While the death of Osama bin Laden and the advent of the ‘Arab Spring’ fed expectations that international jihadism was a spent force, Europe is still facing an increase in terrorist plotting. This has led to growing security concerns over the fallout of the Syrian conflict, and the sizeable contingents of battle-hardened European foreign fighters.

    This book provides a comprehensive account of the rise of jihadist militancy in Europe and offers a detailed background for understanding the current and future threat. Based on a wide range of new primary sources, it traces the phenomenon back to the late 1980s, and the formation of jihadist support networks in Europe in the early 1990s. Combining analytical rigour with empirical richness, the book offers a comprehensive account of patterns of terrorist cell formation and plots between 1995 and 2015. In contrast to existing research which has emphasized social explanations, failed immigration and homegrown radicalism, this book highlights the transnational aspects. It shows how jihadi terrorism in Europe is intrinsically linked to and reflects the ideological agendas of armed organizations in conflict zones, and how entrepreneurial jihad-veterans facilitate such transnationalization of militancy.

    Author

    Petter Nesser is a senior research fellow with the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI). Trained in Social Science, Middle Eastern Studies and Arabic, Nesser has conducted extensive research on jihadism in Europe for more than a decade, while focusing on motivational drivers, recruitment and radicalisation processes.

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  • Jihadism Transformed

    Staffell, Simon (ed)

    Jihadist narratives have evolved dramatically over the past five years, driven by momentous events in the Middle East and beyond; the death of bin Laden; the rise and ultimate failure of the Arab Spring; and most notably, the rise of the so-called Islamic State.

    For many years, al-Qaeda pointed to an aspirational future Caliphate as their utopian end goal — one which allowed them to justify their violent excesses in the here and now. Islamic State turned that aspiration into a dystopic reality, and in the process hijacked the jihadist narrative, breathing new life into the global Salafi-Jihadi movement. Despite air-strikes from above, and local disillusionment from below, the new caliphate has stubbornly persisted and has been at the heart of ISIS’s growing global appeal.

    This timely collection of essays examines how jihadist narratives have changed globally, adapting to these turbulent circumstances. Area and thematic specialists consider transitions inside the Middle East and North Africa as well as in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. As these analyses demonstrate, the success of the ISIS narrative has been as much about resonance with local contexts, as it has been about the appeal of the global idea of a tangible and realised caliphate.

    Authors

    Simon Staffell is a UK government expert on extremist ideologies, counter terrorism and the Middle East. He has a PhD in Political Science and Government from the University of Sheffield and has lived and worked across the Arab World, having recently returned from a diplomatic posting in Cairo.

    Akil Awan is Associate Professor in Modern History, Political Violence and Terrorism at Royal Holloway, University of London.

    Reviews

    ‘This collection of essays covers almost all areas of the world where al Qaeda and/or ISIS are present. It provides fascinating insights on the nature of the terrorist narrative and offers much food for thought on what lies behind and sustains these movements. As well as being of general interest, it will certainly help in constructing an effective counter narrative.’ — Richard Barrett CMG OBE, former Director of Global Counter Terrorism Operations for the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS)

    ‘This important volume brings together an impressive array of contributors to explore some of the most important ideas driving global jihadism today. The breadth of its approach means that both scholars and general readers will gain important insights into the various trends shaping our world today.’ — Shiraz Maher, Senior Research Fellow at the International Center for the Study of Radicalization (ICSR) at Kings College, University of London, and author of Salafi-Jihadism: The History of an Idea

     

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  • Little Mogadishu

    Carrier, Neil

    ‘Everything you need to know about modern Africa can be found on the crowded streets of Nairobi’s “Little Mogadishu” — the dazzling energy, the unnerving challenges. Neil Carrier has walked those streets, and his rich, nuanced book strips away the cliches and misconceptions to reveal a community in furious flux, wrestling with the dilemmas of a whole continent.’ — Andrew Harding, BBC Africa correspondent and author of The Mayor of Mogadishu

    ‘In this impeccably researched overview, Carrier sheds light on the buzzing economic life of an enigmatic, super-diverse, and marginalized urban neighbourhood. Eastleigh has long been represented through false contradictions (Is it fundamentally Kenyan or Somali? A home or a transit zone? Entrepreneurial success story or cover for pirates and terrorists?). Carrier’s expert demystification contributes to our grasp of refugee studies, urban anthropology, globalization, and development economics.’ — Janet McIntosh, Associate Professor of Anthropology at Brandeis University and author of The Edge of Islam and Unsettled: Denial and Belonging among White Kenyans

    ‘Nairobi’s Somali enclave of Eastleigh is an extraordinary place — a major centre of East African trade as well as of Islamic faith, political intrigue, and refugees seeking a better future. In this wonderful book, Neil Carrier depicts Eastleigh in all its vitality and complexity. I immensely enjoyed reading it, and learned much from it.’ — Gordon Mathews, Professor of Anthropology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and author of Ghetto at the Center of the World: Chungking Mansions, Hong Kong

    Nairobi’s Eastleigh estate has undergone pro- found change over the past two decades. Previously a quiet residential zone, the arrival of vast numbers of Somali refugees catalysed its trans- formation into ‘Little Mogadishu’, a global hub for Somali business. Dozens of malls and hotels have sprouted from its muddy streets, attracting thousands of shoppers. Nonetheless, despite boosting Kenya’s economy, the estate and its residents are held in suspicion over alleged links to Islamic terrorism, especially after the 2013 Westgate Mall attack, while local and international media have suggested with little evidence that its economic boom owes much to capital derived from Indian Ocean piracy. In contrast to such sensationalised reporting, Little Mogadishu is based on detailed historical and ethnographic research and explores the social and historical underpinnings of this economic boom. It examines how transnational networks converged on Eastleigh in the wake of the collapse of the Somali state, attracting capital from the Somali diaspora, and bringing goods—especially clothes and electronics—from Dubai, China and elsewhere that are much in demand in East Africa. In so doing, Little Mogadishu provides a compelling case-study of the developmental impact diasporas and transnational trade can have, albeit in a country where many see this development as suspect.

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  • Loyal Enemies

    Jamie Gilham

    Loyal Enemies uncovers the history of the earliest British converts to Islam who lived their lives freely as Muslims on British soil, from the 1850s to the 1950s. Drawing on original archival research, it reveals that people from across the range of social classes defied convention by choosing Islam in this period. Through a series of case studies of influential converts and pioneering Muslim communities, Loyal Enemies considers how the culture of Empire and imperialism influenced and affected their conversions and subsequent lives, before examining how they adapted and sustained their faith. Jamie Gilham shows that, although the overall number of converts was small, conversion to Islam aroused hostile reactions locally and nationally. He therefore also probes the roots of antipathy towards Islam and Muslims, identifies their manifestations and explores what conversion entailed socially and culturally. He also considers whether there was any substance to persistent allegations that converts had ‘divided’ loyalties between the British Crown and a Muslim ruler, country or community. Loyal Enemies is a book about the past, but its core themes—about faith and belief, identity, Empire, loyalties and discrimination—are still salient today.

    Author

    Jamie Gilham is Honorary Research Associate in the Department of History at Royal Holloway, University of London. He is the author of Loyal Enemies: British Converts to Islam, 1850-1950.

    Reviews

    Loyal Enemies is a carefully researched and fascinatingly detailed investigation of the British individuals who converted to Islam during the century-long territorial apogee of the British Empire. … It is time to celebrate the pantheon of Anglo-Muslims to allow Muslims in contemporary Britain to feel part of an older indigenous tradition.’ — Barnaby Rogerson, Times Literary Supplement

    ‘In this meticulously researched and pioneering study, Jamie Gilham brings to life the struggles of the courageous (and often eccentric) British individuals who converted to Islam during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth. Theirs was a difficult choice and the lives of these converts raise broad questions about integration and religious and national loyalties. Some converts had international reputations, though others were much more obscure, but, taken together, all their lives shed an unexpected and fascinating light on the grander events which provided the context for their embrace of Islam, including the Indian Mutiny, the Eastern Question, the Great War, the abolition of the Caliphate, the growing popularity of Sufism in the West and, finally, the mass immigration of Muslims from the former British Empire after the Second World War.’ — Robert Irwin, Senior Research Associate at the School of Oriental and African Studies, and author of Memoirs of a Dervish: Sufis, Mystics and the Sixties

    ‘This is an excellent text on the history of Muslim converts in the Victorian and Edwardian period up until the arrival of post-Second World War migrations, and appears at a time when young British Muslims are rediscovering or uncovering their shared history in the UK. Jamie Gilham’s research is exemplary, shedding light on the motivations for conversion and the processes of situating Islam in a new European environment. Loyal Enemies should be required reading for anyone interested in the creation of a Muslim presence in the UK.’ — Ron Geaves, Professor of Studies of Religions, Liverpool Hope University, and author of Abdullah Quilliam: The Life and Times of a Victorian Muslim

    ‘This is a well-researched and extraordinary account of British converts to Islam, ranging from my great-grandfather’s elder brother Henry Stanley, first Muslim peer of the realm, to ‘Harry’ St John Philby, uncritical fan of Ibn Saud and Wahabism. They all swam resolutely against the tide of public opinion of their day.’ — Lord Avebury, Liberal Democrat Peer

    ‘Gilham explores how from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century a small stream of Britons, in the face of public criticism, converted to Islam. They ranged from the aristocratic Lord Stanley of Alderley to the middle-class Abdullah Quilliam to the working-class wives of lascars in the port cities. It is a fascinating story which demonstrates how, before the large Muslim migrations of the 1950s, Islam already had firm roots in British society.’ — Francis Robinson, Professor of the History of South Asia, Royal Holloway, University of London

    ‘Based on rigorous research and analysis, this study excavates the “hidden” history of a unique group of British Muslim converts, who found themselves lampooned as infidels and traitors, and whose allegiances and identities were frequently questioned. It is indispensable reading for anyone seeking insights on the genealogy of Islam in Britain today.’ — Humayun Ansari, Professor of the History of Islam and Culture, Royal Holloway, University of London, and author of ‘The Infidel Within’: Muslims in Britain Since 1800

    ‘This is a well-written and masterly analysis of one of the most interesting aspects of the foundations of British Islam. Set in the cultural, social and political context of the height of empire, the author provides lively and well-researched accounts of prominent personalities and their path to Islam.’ — Jørgen S. Nielsen, Hon. Professor of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen

    ‘[T]his is a timely study of considerable significance for scholarship of Islam in Britain. … Gilham has pored over innumerable sources, ranging from learned journals and archival materials to more popular publications and full-length academic studies, … to produce this meticulously researched and invaluable volume. … [A] pioneering study that for the first time pieces together this story, portions of which are better known but much of which sees light for the first time as part of a cohesive, historical account.’ — Journal of British Studies

    ‘Not only is Gilham’s study fascinating and very readable, but he provides a great deal of documentation to primary and secondary sources, so that his book will be a starting-point for any future work in this field.’ — Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies Bulletin

    Loyal Enemies is a well researched book and brings out the fact that there is nothing new or alien about Islam in Britain.’ — Asian Affairs

    Hardback / May 2014 / 9781849042758 / 256pp

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  • Migrant, Refugee, Smuggler, Saviour

    Tinti, Peter

    Migrant, Refugee, Smuggler, Saviour investigates one of the most under-examined aspects of the great migration crisis of our time. As millions seek passage to Europe in order to escape conflicts, repressive governments and poverty, their movements are enabled and actively encouraged by professional criminal networks that earn billions of dollars.

    Many of these smugglers carry out their activities with little regard for human rights, which has led to a manifold increase in human suffering, not only in the Mediterranean Sea, but also along the overland smuggling routes that cross the Sahara, penetrate deep into the Balkans, and into hidden corners of Europe’s capitals. But others are revered as saviours by those that they move, for it is they who deliver men, women and children to a safer place and better life. Disconcertingly, it is often criminals who help the most desperate among us when the international system turns them away.

    This book is a measured attempt, born of years of research and reporting in the field, to better understand how people-smuggling networks function, the ways in which they have evolved, and what they mean for peace and security in the future.

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  • Recalling The Caliphate

    Sayyid

    As late as the last quarter of the twentieth century there were expectations that Islam’s political and cultural influence would dissipate as the advance of westernisation brought modernization and secularisation in its wake. Not only has Islam failed to follow the trajectory pursued by variants of Christianity, namely confinement to the private sphere and depoliticisation, but it has also forcefully re-asserted itself as mobilizations in its name challenge the global order in a series of geopolitical, cultural and philosophical struggles. The continuing (if not growing) relevance of Islam suggests that global history cannot simply be presented as a scaled up version of that of the West. Quests for Muslim autonomy present themselves in several forms –– local and global, extremist and moderate, conservative and revisionist –– in the light of which the recycling of conventional narratives about Islam becomes increasingly problematic. Not only are these accounts inadequate for understanding Muslim experiences, but by relying on them many Western governments pursue policies that are counter-productive and ultimately hazardous for Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

    Recalling the Caliphate engages critically with the interaction between Islam and the political in context of a postcolonial world that continues to resist profound decolonization. In the first part of this book Sayyid focuses on how demands for Muslim autonomy are debated in terms such as democracy, cultural relativism, secularism and liberalism. Each chapter analyses the displacements and evasions by which the decolonization of the Muslim world continues to be deflected and deferred, while the latter part of the book builds on this critique, exploring and attempts to accelerate the decolonization of the Muslim Ummah.

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  • Republic of Islamophobia

    Jim Wolfreys

    Islamophobia in France is rising, with Muslims subjected to unprecedented scrutiny of what they wear, eat and say. Championed by Marine Le Pen and drawing on the French colonial legacy, France’s ‘new secularism’ gives racism a respectable veneer. Jim Wolfreys exposes the dynamic driving this intolerance: a society polarised by inequality, and the authoritarian neoliberalism of the French political mainstream. This officially sanctioned Islamophobia risks going unchallenged. It has divided the traditional anti-racist movement and undermined the left’s opposition to bigotry. Wolfreys deftly unravels the problems facing those trying to confront today’s rise in racism. Republic of Islamophobia illuminates both the uniqueness of France’s anti-Muslim backlash and its broader implications for the West.

    Author

    Jim Wolfreys lectures in French and European politics at King’s College London. He is co-author (with Peter Fysh) of The Politics of Racism in France.

    Reviews

    ‘Wolfreys’ writing is that of a political insider, underpinned by academic rigour. This book is a wake-up call, warning of the creep of Islamophobia into mainstream French political discourse and its dire consequences if left unchecked. It is vital reading for policy makers and commentators alike.’ — Baroness Sayeeda Warsi, author of The Enemy Within: A Tale of Muslim Britain

    ‘A powerful tale of France’s Islamophobic spiral. Rich in detail and with a keen ear for the ironies of moral panics around veiling, violence, and values, Wolfreys shows France’s importance in this globally emerging phenomenon. A compelling argument for the links between political Islamophobia, neoliberalism, and the failures of the left.’ — Arun Kundnani, author of The Muslims Are Coming! 

    ‘An authoritative and lucid account of France’s descent into societal disaster. This excruciating and at times shocking catalogue of political mis-steps strongly suggests a far more dangerous ‘enemy within’ than the Muslim one we constantly hear about. Could the French experience be repeated here in the UK? Wolfreys’ book is a warning to us all.’ — James Fergusson, author of Al-Britannia, My Country: A Journey Through Muslim Britain

    ‘A sharp-eyed, merciless and up-to-the-minute analysis of France’s current travails, which are also Britain’s’. — Robert Gildea, Professor of Modern History, University of Oxford, and author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance

    Paperback
    February 2018 / 9781849046886 / 208pp

     

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